Since 1, 2, 7 and 8 are interpersonal, they are universal. These evolved when we
lived in small groups, before the advent of culture, around 2 million years ago.
Since 3-8 are cultural, they vary between cultures in the way they are emphasised
and carried out. All of them may vary between individuals or between political or
religious persuasions. These values evolved as a way of cooperating within large
groups. Cultural markings, and therefore larger groups, are known from around 150,000
We see that 7 and 8 are both universal and cultural.
Conceptions of fairness vary widely, but there is always a conception of fairness.
When the individual is making a moral judgement, there will be multiple moral “voices”
competing for attention and consideration, from the various families of values.
Sometimes cultural values may conflict with interpersonal values.