Humans survive and flourish by cooperating with each other. We are sometimes called
the “hypercooperative” species. Along with some ants and other highly successful
eusocial insects, our runaway success in colonising almost every niche on the planet
is due mainly to our intense prosociality and cooperation.
Almost unique among primates, and unique among the great apes, human beings are a
cooperatively breeding species. While the babies of great apes spend almost 100%
of their life before weaning (moving on from mother’s milk) attached to the mother,
and interacting only with the mother, human babies are typically looked after by
many other helpers as well. These are known as allomothers (“other mothers”) and
may include grandmothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, cousins, unrelated mothers
and other group members.
Other cooperatively breeding species include elephants, wolves, bottlenose dolphins,
crows, and some tamarins and marmosets.
Enhanced empathy ...
We believe that cooperative breeding led to one of the crucial, basic, necessary
abilities for human cooperation: unlike the other great apes, humans seek out and
enjoy sharing in the mental states of others for prosocial purposes. Put simply,
people who are cooperating in a sophisticated way need to have a sophisticated understanding
of each other’s mental states, and a willingness to share these mental states.
The capacity to enter into the inner worlds of others, empathy, is thought to be
formed when a baby bonds with its caregiver and is rewarded with maternal care and
affection for sharing in her mental state. In apes, this caregiver is the mother
Human babies are typically cared for by allomothers much of the time. The hypothesis
is that, since the baby relies on many other people to care for it, it needs to monitor
and assess the intentions of those people towards it. It needs to know what many
people think, at least towards itself. A human baby will try and elicit care from
people around it by seeking out faces, vocalising and looking “cute”.
Therefore it is in the interests of a human baby to want to enter into the inner
worlds of others for prosocial purposes, in a way that is not necessary for great
It is thought also that cooperative breeding led to a general reduction of aggression
within human groups, as adults took a more beneficial attitude towards the offspring
of others, than is normal in other great apes. In other great ape species, adults
often kill the offspring of others, either (in the case of females) to assert dominance
over another female, or (in the case of males) to ensure that another male’s young
will not survive, or to make a female ready for mating again, or (in chimpanzees)
when a female with young from another group is encountered during a border patrol.
... added to the existing, advanced social and cognitive skills of great apes
Humans are a member of the great ape family, along with chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas
and orang utans. It is thought that the human lineage diverged from that of our
nearest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, around 6 million years ago.
Since the other great ape species all possess approximately the same skills of intelligence,
it seems reasonable to assume that the last common ancestor of humans and chimps/bonobos,
six million years ago, also possessed similar skills.
Skills of physical cognition (physical intelligence) in non-human great apes
Great apes are some of the most advanced species in making and using tools. They
are flexible in this regard, able to create novel solutions to new problems, and
to plan ahead by saving particular tools for future tasks. They have a simple understanding
of physical logic and cause and effect.
Like many animals, when getting ready to act, they can play out various courses of
action and possible outcomes in their minds before choosing what seems like the best
one. But they are especially sophisticated in that they can monitor and evaluate
their own thinking and decision-making: for example, taking into account what they
know and don’t know about a situation.
Skills of social cognition in non-human great apes
Again, the socio-cognitive skills of great apes are advanced compared with other
species. They can read the mental states, goals and intentions of others, and understand
how these generate actions. They understand that others see things, know things
and work things out. They know that others have a different perspective from their
own. These constitute a rudimentary “theory of mind”, a simple understanding of
others’ inner worlds. They enter into these inner worlds mainly for their own ends
rather than cooperatively like humans do.
Their communication is imperative: i.e. is made up of commands, telling each other
to do things.
Social life of non-human great apes: mostly competitive, a little cooperative
In forming intentions and goals, using tools, eating food, and living their lives
in general, great apes act alone, individually, for their own benefit almost entirely,
even though they are in a group. However, they form friendships and alliances for
competitive purposes and keep track of who in the group is affiliated to whom. Males
will get together to defend the group against threats from outside, usually marauding
males from other groups. Great apes are unique among primates in showing consoling
behaviour to others: soothing another after a fight or other misfortune.
Prosocial cooperation in humans: thinking and acting together
The hypothesis is that the eagerness of humans to engage in the mental states of
others made possible the “socialisation” of the existing cognitive skills of our
great ape ancestors, and so these became available to be used for cooperative purposes
(e.g. foraging together) as well as competitive. In other words, it made it possible
for humans to think, and therefore act, jointly as well as individually.
Food sharing and tolerance
Would any of you offer his son a stone when he asks for bread, or a snake when he
asks for a fish? If you, bad as you are, know how to give good things to your children,
how much more will your heavenly Father give good things to those who ask Him!
Jesus – Matthew 7:9–11
Our great ape cousins are very reluctant to share their food, even with their own
young, and a chimpanzee mother will only grudgingly give shells and husks to its
infant in response to begging. Young, weaned great apes are capable of foraging
fruit, insects etc. for themselves.
Humans, on the other hand, very readily share their most preferred food with their
children and with friends and strangers alike. Human children are not capable of
obtaining and processing the food they eat once they are weaned (i.e. no longer exist
on milk) and they require adults to do this for them.
When early humans first started living on the African savannah, around 2 million
years ago, their previous diet of largely fruit and other vegetation would have been
harder to find because of the grassland environment and because of competition from
ground-dwelling monkeys such as baboons. The food that would have been available:
animal carcases for scavenging, and underground tubers, would have required adults
to obtain and process. In scavenging large carcases, adults would have had to band
together to scare away other carnivore species competing for the meat; and underground
tubers need to be dug up and cooked.
Sharing valued food between adults and youngsters is clearly a fundamental prosocial
action that chimpanzees almost never do, that requires tolerance, sharing and giving.
It is a further form of cooperation that results from the human need to cooperate
in order to obtain food. It is a way of levelling out differences in the abundance
of food between people, that results in each individual being fed more properly more
of the time. It also works as a way to motivate all those concerned, as they see
that their efforts will be properly rewarded. Cooperative breeding would likely
have provided a further motivating factor to share food among the group.
In experiments by Michael Tomasello and his team at the Max Planck Institute for
Evolutionary Anthropology, it has been found that pairs of chimpanzees who are more
tolerant with each other around food are also more willing to collaborate together
and then share the spoils of the collaboration.
In most carnivore species, for example, vultures or carnivorous mammals, meat is
not shared equally but is allocated according to dominance: those with the best fighting
ability get the most meat, and others get what they can by harassing the dominant
individuals. Humans, on the other hand, are notable for the way they share their
food equally among themselves. In the context of early humans scavenging large carcases
together, the hypothesis is that people collaborated to defend the carcase from other
carnivores, and that individuals who tried to hog it for themselves would have been
driven away by the others. Those who did best were those who could peacefully tolerate
others feeding beside them and who did not try to dominate the food.
Evolution of cooperative breeding in humans: Homo erectus
There is circumstantial evidence that cooperative breeding first arose in our ancestor
species, Homo erectus or Homo ergaster, in Africa around 1.8 million years ago.
It is thought that cooperative breeding evolves in conditions where it is necessary
for adults to provide a lot of help to young who could not survive without help,
and where it is necessary to live together in a group.
In the harsh savannah environment in which Homo erectus lived, adults would have
had to obtain and process the food that the youngsters needed. Surviving in this
environment required people to cooperate together, i.e. in a group.
Homo erectus was the first hominin species to migrate from Africa, and it is thought
that cooperative breeding makes it much easier to colonise new habitats because it
greatly increases the chances of survival of a species in unfamiliar environments,
by providing a lot of extra help to mothers and children, and because it is thought
to allow a greater brain size and therefore greater intelligence. We believe also
that teaching would have been a major feature of this cooperative, collective child-rearing
culture, allowing knowledge to spread and accumulate.
Female Homo erectus were larger overall and with bigger brains than in previous species,
indicating that they probably had more children.
Pair bonding, cooperative breeding, brain size, and cooperation
The brain size of Homo erectus was the first to exceed the normal range in great
apes in primate evolutionary history, and cooperative breeding is thought to allow
for bigger brain size because it provides greater energy inputs (food and physical
helping) to the mother and growing child, and this allows the mother to have more
than one infant at a time. Otherwise the species is constrained by the “grey ceiling”
where a mother only has the chance to grow a limited number of infants in one lifetime,
below which the species will die out. The result of an expensive big brain is a
longer bodily growth time (leading to a longer life span). Fossil teeth of Homo
erectus in East Africa are found to have grown more slowly than in comparable great
While cooperative breeding allows for a greater brain size, it is not, in itself,
an evolutionary pressure that creates a requirement for a greater brain size.
Among monkeys and apes, brain size is related to group size: those living in bigger
groups tend to have bigger brains. Analysis of the data points to the quality (or
“bondedness”) of relationships being the driving factor selecting for bigger brains,
and a big group will give more opportunity for more closely bonded relationships.
Close bonds between group members are often strategic: for the purpose of creating
coalitions which can compete with other coalitions or individuals for political power.
Polygyny OR promiscuity in particular great ape species
The reasons for the particular mating setup in a particular species – whether polygynous
(one male monopolising multiple females for the purpose of mating), or promiscuous
multi-male multi-female, with no permanent mating pair bonds – are still not well
In “Primeval Kinship – how pair-bonding gave birth to human society”, Bernard Chapais
describes the mating setups of, at least, baboons, and great apes including humans.
The common factor is that a male will try and monopolise, or guard (control for
his own mating purposes, and protect from other males) as many females as he can
get away with, and this number is limited only by circumstances. From this it follows
that the mating setup of a species is determined by the living circumstances of that
The social arrangement in chimpanzees and bonobos is a multi-male multi-female group
with promiscuous mating and no pair-bonds between parents. When conditions are harsh,
the prevailing model in primates tends to be polygamy, where one male dominates several
females. Judging from the difference in size between males and females, it is thought
that the ancestors of the Homo line, the australopithicines, practiced polygamy.
Monogamy, polygyny, AND promiscuity in humans
... all types of marital unions could be cultural variants ultimately derived from
the same ancestral mating pattern. What, then, was this stem pattern like?
In all likelihood its essence lay in the single major feature that transcends all
types of marital arrangements: their selective and relatively stable character. Regardless
of the exact nature of marital unions, men and women form enduring pair-bonds, a
term that encompasses more than strictly dyadic, monogamous unions.
... Pair bonding is, essentially and simply, the opposite of promiscuity – short-term
mating relations with several partners. It includes all types of enduring reproductive
relations between particular males and females. Pair-bonding thus refers to a specific
property of mating arrangements: their duration.
... In no human society is sexual promiscuity the sole or the main form of mating
arrangement, as it is in other primate societies categorized as sexually promiscuous,
such as chimpanzees and macaques. Promiscuity consistently accompanies various forms
of stable breeding bonds. As a matter of fact, much of the sexual promiscuity in
humans takes place premaritally, and the permissive character of premarital sex only
serves to emphasize the social importance of marital unions. Moreover, sexual promiscuity
by married individuals is universally disapproved of. Thus not only are stable breeding
bonds consistently present across human societies, but they prevail over promiscuity.
For that matter, procreation in humans is expected to take place in the context
of marital bonds. All human societies differentiate between legitimate and illegitimate
children, a distinction that further illustrates the centrality of pair-bonding in
the human mating system. Logically, therefore, the stem ancestral pattern out of
which emerged all known human mating arrangements, whether polygynous, polyandrous,
or even homosexual, is the enduring breeding association itself.
Compared to humans, therefore, other primates have relatively rigid mating systems.
The remarkable flexibility of human mating systems is obviously a matter of cultural
variation. We have an unusual capacity to adjust mating arrangements in relation
to subsistence patterns, forms of descent, and so forth. But however culturally
variable, human mating arrangements always build upon the same core feature: the
Bernard Chapais – “Primeval Kinship – how pair-bonding gave birth to human society”
Homo erectus is thought to be the first human species to practice monogamous pair-bonding
in the context of raising children: long-lasting bonds between (usually) a single
man and a single woman. The reason for this assumption is that for the first time
in the human family tree, male and female Homo erectus were nearly the same size,
which indicates reduced sexual selection for large males, which indicates reduced
competition between males. A plausible reason for this reduction in competition was
the invention of stone tools, which can be used as weapons, thereby reducing the
difference in fighting ability between males.
Pair-bonds, cooperative breeding, and “expensive babies”
The human pair-bond can be thought of as another form of cooperative breeding. Evidence
supports the ideas that
... the costs of raising human children are disproportionate in a comparative perspective,
and the father does contribute to reducing these costs. [Chapais]
Pair-bonds, the family, and reduction in human male aggression compared with other
It is thought that parental pair-bonding increased the cooperative motivations of
early human species because males would then recognise the offspring they had helped
to raise, their own brothers and sisters, and their mating partner, and would then
be motivated to reduce their overall aggression. In general, it would have strengthened
family bonds both within groups and between groups (through intermarrying).
As part of the overall logic of human interdependence, cooperative breeding could
perhaps also decrease the overall aggression by males, as they were required to help
look after the offspring of their friends: the adults upon whom they depended to
Self-domestication and the evolution of cooperation
This evolutionary process of ancient human “self-domestication” would have been a
necessary foundation for the evolution of human cooperation, since this relies on
a reduction in competitive aggression.